The Revelation of Anointed Jesus

1:1The revelation of Anointed Jesus, which God gave him to show his slaves what must suddenly come to pass, shown through his commissioned Messenger to his slave John,1:2who testified to the word of God and the martyrdom of Jesus:1:3Blessed are both the reader1 and the hearer of the words of the prophecies, and those who keep a close watch over what is written in them, because the time is near.

1:4John, to the seven Congregations in Asia. Favor and peace to you from the One who is, who was, and who is coming, from the seven spirits who are before his throne,1:5and from Anointed Jesus, the trustworthy martyr and firstborn from the dead, ruler of the kings of the earth who loves us and freed us from our failure by means of his blood,1:6making us a kingdom, priests to his God and Father; honor and mighty rule forever, absolutely!

1:7Look! He is coming with the clouds and every eye will see him; those who pierced him and all the tribes of the earth will grieve. Yes, absolutely!1:8“I am the alpha and the omega,” says the Master, “the God who is, who was, and who is coming, the Almighty.”

1:9I, John, your brother and joint partner in oppression, the Kingdom, and endurance with Jesus, was on the island called Patmos on account of the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus.1:10I was in the Spirit on the Master’s Day and heard behind me a loud voice as from a trumpet1:11saying, “Write down on a scroll what you see, and send it to the seven Congregations: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea.”

1:12I turned around to see what voice was talking to me, and I saw seven golden lampstands.1:13In the center of them was someone human-like, clothed in a full-length garment with a golden sash around his chest.1:14His head and hair were as white as wool or snow, and his eyes were like blazing fire.1:15His feet were like burnished copper that has been fired in a furnace, and his voice sounded like the rushing of great amounts of water.1:16In his right hand he held seven stars, and out of his mouth went a sharp, double-edged broadsword. His appearance was like the sun shining in all its brilliance.

1:17When I saw him I dropped at his feet as if I were dead, but he placed his right hand on me and said, “Do not be afraid! I am the First and the Last,1:18the Living One who died, but look! I am alive forever, and I hold the keys of Death and Hades.1:19So then, write down what you’ve seen, what is now, and what is about to take place.1:20The secret meaning of the seven stars you saw in my right hand and the seven golden lampstands is this: the seven stars are the messengers of the Congregations, while the seven lampstands are the Congregations themselves.”

2:1“To the messenger of the Congregation in Ephesus, write this:

“These are the words of the one firmly grasping the seven stars in his right hand, the one walking among the seven golden lampstands:2:2I have seen what you’ve been doing, your hard labor and endurance, and that you don’t put up with the depraved. You tested their claims to be Ambassadors (they are not) and found those claims to be false.2:3You have endured and upheld my name tirelessly.

2:4“But I have this against you: you have let go of the devotion you had at first.22:5Remember, then, the height from which you have fallen, and change your mind. Do the things you once did, because if you don’t, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place.2:6But at least you have this going for you: you despise what the Nicolaitans do, just as much as I.

2:7“Let those with ears pay attention to what the Spirit is saying to the Congregations! To those who conquer I will give food from the Tree of Life which is in the middle of the Paradise of God.

2:8“To the messenger of the Congregation in Smyrna, write this:

“These are the words of the First and the Last, who died and then lived again:2:9I have seen the pressure you’ve been under, and your poverty (yet you are rich!), and the slander of those who claim to be Judeans but are not (they are a congregation of the Adversary).2:10But do not fear what you are about to experience. Look! The False Accuser is going to throw you into prison to test you, and you will be under pressure for ten days. Be faithful even to the point of death, and I will award you the gift of life.

2:11“Let those with ears pay attention to what the Spirit is saying to the Congregations! Those who conquer will absolutely not be harmed by the Second Death.

2:12“To the messenger of the Congregation in Pergamos, write this:

“These are the words of the one having the sharp, double-edged broadsword.2:13I have seen where you live— where the Adversary’s throne is. But you hold tightly to my name and have not renounced my faith, even in the days when my faithful martyr Antipas was killed among you— where the Adversary lives.

2:14“But I have a few things against you: that you have some people there who are holding tightly to the teaching of Balaam, who advised Balak to set a trap for the people of Israel and entice them to eat food sacrificed to idols and to practice promiscuity.2:15You likewise have some who have adopted and hold tightly to the teaching of the Nicolaitans.2:16Change your minds, then! Otherwise I will suddenly come to you and battle with them with the broadsword from my mouth.

2:17“Let those with ears pay attention to what the Spirit is saying to the Congregations! To those who conquer I will give the hidden manna, and also a white pebble3 with a new name written on it, which no one knows but the one holding it.

2:18“To the messenger of the Congregation in Thyatira, write this:

“These are the words of the God-Man, the one whose eyes are like blazing fire and whose feet are like burnished copper.2:19I have seen what you’ve been doing, your love and faith and service, your endurance, and that you are doing more now than you were at first.

2:20“But I have this against you: you let that woman Jezebel4 go around saying she’s a prophet, teaching and misleading my slaves to practice promiscuity and eat food sacrificed to idols.2:21I gave her time to change her mind, but she won’t give up her promiscuity.2:22Look! I am throwing her and her clients into a bed of great suffering if they don’t turn back from her practices.2:23And I will strike her children dead so that all the Congregations will know I am the one who searches minds and hearts; everyone will get what’s coming to them!

2:24“Yet I say this to the rest in Thyatira who do not hold to this teaching, who have not known the so-called ’deep things of the Adversary’: I will not put any other weight on you,2:25except that you hold on tight until I arrive.2:26To the ones who conquer and guard my actions to the end, I will give jurisdiction over the non-Judeans.2:27They will ‘shepherd them with a rod of iron and crush them like earthenware jars’, just as I too have received jurisdiction from my Father,2:28and I will give [the ones who conquer] the Morning Star.

2:29“Let those with ears pay attention to what the Spirit is saying to the Congregations!

3:1“To the messenger of the Congregation in Sardis, write this:

“These are the words of the one having the seven spirits of God and the seven stars. I have seen what you’ve been doing, with your reputation of being alive— but you are dead!3:2Wake up and reinforce what little remains and is about to die, because I have not found your work fulfilled before my God.3:3Remember, then, what you have received and heard; guard it and change your minds. But if you don’t stay alert, I will come like a thief, without warning.

3:4“But you have a few people there in Sardis who have not contaminated their clothes; they will walk with me in white, because they are worthy.3:5Those who conquer will likewise be clothed in white garments, and I will definitely not erase their names from the Book of Life but will acknowledge them before my Father and his Messengers.

3:6“Let those with ears pay attention to what the Spirit is saying to the Congregations!

3:7“To the messenger of the Congregation in Philadelphia, write this:

“These are the words of the one who is holy and true, the one having the Key of David that opens what no one can lock and locks what no one can open.3:8I have seen what you’ve been doing, but look! I have set before you an open door that no one can shut, because you have little power yet you guard my Word and have not renounced my name.

3:9“Look! I am making those of the congregation of the Adversary (who lie and say they are Judeans but are not) come and worship at your feet and acknowledge that I have loved you.3:10Since you guarded the Word of my endurance, I will also guard you out of the hour of trial that is about to come upon the whole inhabited world, to test all who live on the earth.3:11I am coming suddenly! Hold tightly to what you have so that no one can take your reward.

3:12“Those who conquer will be made pillars in the temple of my God and will never go outside of it again. And I will write on them the name of my God and the name of his city, the New Jerusalem descending out of heaven from him, and my new name.

3:13“Let those with ears pay attention to what the Spirit is saying to the Congregations!

3:14“To the messenger of the Congregation in Laodicea, write this:

“These are the words of the True One, the trustworthy martyr, the originator of God’s creation.3:15I have seen what you’ve been doing. You are neither hot nor cold; if only you were one or the other!3:16And so since you are tepid— neither hot nor cold— I am about to vomit you out of my mouth!3:17You say ‘I am rich and have amassed wealth and need nothing’, but you cannot see that you are wretched, pitiful, destitute, blind, and naked.

3:18“I advise you to buy from me refined gold so you can be truly rich, white clothes so your shameful nakedness will not be exposed, and eye salve to anoint your eyes so you can see.3:19Those I am fond of I rebuke and instruct. So be filled with desire, and change your minds!

3:20“Look! I have been standing here knocking on the doors. If anyone hears the sound and opens up the doors, I will enter in and dine with them, and they with me.3:21To those who conquer I will grant the right to sit with me on my throne, just as I conquered and sat with my Father on his throne.

3:22“Let those with ears pay attention to what the Spirit is saying to the Congregations!”

4:1After these things I looked, and what did I see but a door opened up in heaven! Then the trumpet-like voice I had heard before said to me, “Come up here, and I will show you what must come to pass after these things.”

4:2Immediately I was in the Spirit, and look! A throne set in heaven,4:3and on the throne sits someone whose appearance is like the precious stones jasper and carnelian. Surrounding the throne is a rainbow like an emerald,4:4and twenty-four thrones with twenty-four elders sitting on them, with the elders clothed in white garments and wearing golden victor’s crowns on their heads.4:5Flashes of light, sounds, and thunder issue from the throne, and in front of the throne are seven flaming torches which are the seven spirits of God.4:6Beyond them is a glassy, crystal-like sea.5

The throne is in the center of a circle formed by four animals covered with eyes from front to back.4:7The first is like a lion, the second is like a calf, the third has a human-like face, and the fourth is like a flying eagle.4:8Each one has six wings and is loaded with eyes, inside and out. Day and night they never stop saying, “Holy, holy, holy, Master God Almighty, who was, and is, and is coming!”

4:9Whenever the animals give honor and esteem and thanks to the one sitting on the throne (the one who lives forever),4:10the twenty four elders fall down before the one on the throne and worship him who lives forever. Throwing their crowns before him they say,4:11“You are worthy, our Master and God, to receive honor and esteem and power, because you formed everything by your will.”

5:1Then in the right hand of the one sitting on the throne I saw a scroll. It had writing on both sides and was sealed with seven seals.5:2And I saw a strong Messenger announcing in a loud voice, “Who is worthy to open up the scroll and break its seals?”5:3But no one was able, not in the sky or the earth or beneath the earth, to open the scroll and look at it.

5:4I cried and sobbed because no one was found worthy to open up the scroll and look at it.5:5But one of the elders says to me, “Don’t cry; look! The Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered in order to open up the scroll and its seals.”

5:6And I saw a Lamb standing in the middle of the throne surrounded by the four animals and the elders. It appeared to have been slaughtered, and it had seven horns and seven eyes, which are the spirits of God sent out into all the earth.5:7It came and took the scroll from the right hand of the one sitting on the throne,5:8and when it did, the four animals and the twenty-four elders fell before the Lamb. Each of them had a harp and a golden bowl filled with incense, which is the prayers of the holy people.

5:9They sing a new song: “You are worthy to take the scroll and break its seals because you were slaughtered, and with your blood you bought us6 for God from every tribe and language and people group and nation.5:10You made them a kingdom and priests to God, and they will reign on the earth.”

5:11I looked and heard the voices of many Messengers surrounding the throne and the animals and the elders; they numbered in the ten-thousands, even the millions!5:12They said in a loud voice, “The Lamb who had been slaughtered is worthy to take the power, the wealth, the wisdom, the strength, the esteem, the honor, and the blessing!”5:13And every created thing in the sky, the earth, beneath the earth, and on or in the sea— I heard them all saying, “Blessing and esteem, honor and mighty rule belong forever to the one sitting on the throne and to the Lamb!”5:14Then the four animals said, “Absolutely!” and the elders fell down and worshiped.

6:1I watched as the Lamb opened the first of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four animals say in a voice like thunder, “Come!”6:2Suddenly there was a white horse. Its rider held a bow and wore a victor’s crown, and went out conquering with the intent to keep on conquering.7

6:3When the Lamb opened the second seal, I heard the second animal say “Come!”6:4And out came another horse, a fiery one. Its rider was given a large sword and granted the power to take peace from the earth so that people would slaughter each other.8

6:5When the Lamb opened the third seal, I heard the third animal say “Come!” Suddenly there was a black horse whose rider held a pair of scales.96:6And I heard a voice from the center of the four animals saying, “A day’s ration of wheat for a day’s wages, and three days’ ration of barley for a day’s wages… and don’t damage the olive oil and the wine!”

6:7When the Lamb opened the fourth seal, I heard the fourth animal say “Come!”6:8Suddenly there was a green horse whose rider was labeled Death, accompanied by Hades.10 They were given jurisdiction over a fourth of the earth to kill with the sword, with famine, with other causes, and with the wild animals of the earth.

6:9When the Lamb opened the fifth seal, I saw at the base of the altar the souls of those who had been slaughtered on account of the Word of God and the testimony they held.6:10They shouted in a loud voice, “How long, holy and true Master, until you judge the earth dwellers and avenge our blood?”6:11Then each of them was given a white robe and told to be patient for a little longer for their fellow slaves, their brothers and sisters, who were about to be killed as they were.

6:12I watched the Lamb open the sixth seal, and there was a great disturbance; the sun became black as goat hair cloth and the whole moon became like blood.6:13Then the stars fell from the sky to the earth, something like when a strong wind shakes a fig tree and causes it to cast its overripe figs.6:14The sky recoiled as when a scroll is rolled up, and every mountain and island was shifted from its place.

6:15Then the kings of the earth, the great ones, the military commanders of thousands, the rich, the strong, the slave and the free all hid themselves in caves and in crevices in the mountains.6:16And they’re saying to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of the one sitting on the throne and from the fury of the Lamb!6:17For the day of their great fury has arrived, and who is able to stand?”

7:1After this I saw four Messengers standing on the four cardinal points of the earth,11 holding back the four winds to keep them from blowing on the earth or sea or any trees.7:2Then I saw another Messenger ascending from the direction of the rising sun and possessing the Seal of the Living God. The Messenger called out in a loud voice to the four other Messengers, who were given permission to harm the earth and the sea,7:3“Do not harm the earth or the sea or the trees until we seal the slaves of our God on their foreheads.”

7:4I heard the number of the sealed ones, and it was one hundred forty-four thousand from all the tribes of Israel, twelve thousand from each one:7:5Judah, Reuben, Gad,7:6Asher, Naphtali, Manasseh,7:7Simeon, Levi, Issachar,7:8Zebulon, Joseph, and Benjamin.

7:9After these things, suddenly there was a crowd so large that no one could possibly count the number of people! They came from all the non-Judean tribes, people groups, and languages, and were standing before the throne and the Lamb. They were clothed in white robes and held palm branches in their hands.7:10They shouted in a loud voice, “Salvation to our God sitting on the throne, and to the Lamb!”

7:11Then all the Messengers standing around the throne, as well as the elders and the four animals, fell down on their faces before the throne and worshiped God:7:12“Truly blessing, honor, wisdom, thanks, esteem, power, and strength belong to our God forever, absolutely!”

7:13Then one of the elders asked me, “These who have been clothed in white robes: who are they and where did they come from?”

7:14And I answered, “Sir, only you know!”

“These are the people coming out of the Great Oppression,” he replied. “They soaked and whitened their robes in the blood of the Lamb,7:15and as a result they are before the throne of God. They offer divine service to him day and night in his temple, and the one sitting on the throne will shelter them personally.7:16No longer will they go hungry; no longer will they thirst; no longer will the sun beat down on them with its heat.7:17For the Lamb, the one in the center of the throne, will shepherd them and guide them to wells of water. And God will wipe every tear from their eyes.”

8:1When the Lamb opened the seventh seal, it became silent in heaven for half an hour.8:2Then I saw the seven Messengers standing before God, and they were given seven trumpets.

8:3Another Messenger came and stood at the altar, holding a golden frankincense container. He was given a lot of incense, which is the prayers of the holy people, to place on the golden altar before the throne.8:4And the smoke of the incense with the prayers of the holy people ascended from the Messenger’s hand to the presence of God.8:5Then the Messenger took the frankincense container and completely filled it with fire from the altar, then threw it into the earth causing thunder, rumbling, lightning, and an earthquake.

8:6Then the seven Messengers with the seven trumpets prepared to blow them.8:7The first trumpet sounded, and there came hail and fire mingled with blood. It was thrown to the earth, and a third of the earth, a third of the trees, and all the green grass was burned up.

8:8The second trumpet sounded, and a huge blazing mountain was thrown into the sea. A third of the sea became blood,8:9a third of the sea creatures with souls died, and a third of the ships disintegrated.

8:10The third trumpet sounded, and a huge star burning like a torch fell out of the sky, landing on a third of the streams and springs8:11(the star is called Bitterness12). A third of the waters became bitter, and many people died as a result of the bitter waters.

8:12The fourth trumpet sounded, and a third of the sun, a third of the moon, and a third of the stars were struck with darkness, such that the light of both day and night was reduced by a third.8:13Then I saw an eagle flying through the sky, and I heard it say in a loud voice, “Woe, woe, woe upon the earth dwellers, because of the trumpet blasts about to be sounded by the remaining three Messengers!”

9:1The fifth trumpet sounded, and I saw a star that had fallen out of the sky, and he was given the keys to the shaft of the Abyss.139:2When he opened the shaft, smoke went up from it like the smoke from a huge furnace, darkening the sun and the air.9:3Out of the smoke to the earth came locusts, and they were given permission like that of the earth’s scorpions.

9:4The locusts were told not to harm the pastures of the earth, nor anything green, nor any of the trees, but only those people who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads.9:5And they were not allowed to kill them but only to torture them for five months. The torture was like the agony of a scorpion sting,9:6and in those days people will seek death but not find it; they will want to die but death will elude them.

9:7The locusts resembled horses prepared for battle. On their heads they had what looked like golden victor’s crowns, and they had faces like humans.9:8Their hair was like women’s hair, and their teeth were like lions’ teeth.9:9They wore body armor that seemed to be made of iron, and the sound of their wings was like many horses and chariots running into battle.9:10The locusts had tails with stingers like scorpions, and the tails were allowed to harm people for five months.9:11They had as king over them the Messenger of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon.14

9:12The first “woe” is gone, but look! There are still two to come after these things!

9:13The sixth trumpet sounded, and I heard a voice coming from the four projections on the golden altar before God.9:14It told the sixth trumpeter, “Release the four Messengers confined to the great river Euphrates!”9:15So the four Messengers were released, having been prepared for this hour, day, month, and year, to kill a third of mankind.9:16The number of the cavalry troops was two hundred million; I heard that number.

9:17This is how I perceived the horses and riders in my vision: they had body armor that was fiery red, deep blue, and bright yellow. The horses’ heads were like lions’ heads, and out of their mouths go fire and smoke and sulphur.9:18From these three disasters— the fire, the smoke, and the sulphur coming out of their mouths— a third of mankind was killed.9:19The horses’ license to kill is in their mouths and tails, because their tails are like serpents who inflict injury with their heads.

9:20The rest of mankind who were not killed in these three disasters refused to change their minds from what they had done; they did not stop worshiping demons and idols of gold, silver, copper, stone, and wood, which cannot see or hear or walk around.9:21Neither did they change their minds from their murders, their sorceries,15 their promiscuity, or their thefts.

10:1And I saw another strong Messenger descending out of the sky. He had been clothed with a cloud and there was a rainbow over his head. His face was like the sun and his feet were like pillars of fire.10:2In his right hand he held a little open scroll. He placed his right foot on the sea and his left on the land.

10:3He called out in a loud voice like the roar of a lion, and the seven thunders responded.10:4When they did, I intended to write it down but I heard a voice from the sky saying, “Seal up what the seven thunders said and do not write it down.”

10:5Then the Messenger I had seen standing on the sea and the land lifted his right hand to the sky.10:6He swore an oath to the Eternal Living One, who formed the sky, the earth, the sea, and all they contain, that there will be no more delay:10:7in the day that the seventh Messenger sounds the trumpet the secret of God will be completed, which is the Gospel he announced to his slaves the prophets.

10:8Then the voice I had heard from the sky spoke to me again and said, “Go and take the open scroll from the hand of the Messenger standing on the sea and the land.”10:9So I went to the Messenger and asked for the little scroll, and he replied, “Take it and eat it; it will upset your belly but taste as sweet as honey in your mouth.”

10:10Then I took the little scroll out of his hand and ate it, and it did in fact taste as sweet as honey in my mouth but upset my belly.10:11Then he says to me, “You must prophesy again to people groups, nations, languages, and many kings.”

11:1Then I was given a stick like a measuring rod and was told, “Arise and measure the temple of God, and the altar and those worshiping at it.11:2But leave out the outer court and don’t measure it, because it was given to the non-Judeans, who will trample the holy city for forty-two months.11:3And I will give my two witnesses the charge of prophesying for one thousand, two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth.”

11:4These witnesses are the two olive trees and the two lamp stands set before the Master of the Earth.11:5And if anyone decides to harm them, fire goes out of their mouths and consumes their enemies; this is how whoever decides to harm them must die.

11:6These two have permission to lock up the sky so it doesn’t rain for as long as they prophesy, to turn the waters into blood, and to strike the earth with all kinds of disasters as often as they choose.11:7And when they complete their testimony, the wild animal ascending out of the Abyss will fight and conquer them, and kill them.11:8Their corpses will lie in the main square of that city which is figuratively called Sodom and Egypt— that is, where their Master was crucified.

11:9People from every group and tribe and language among the nations gawk at the corpses for three and a half days, refusing them burial.11:10The earth dwellers gloat over them and even send gifts to each other, because these two prophets had tormented them.11:11But after the three and a half days, the spirit of life from God entered into them and they stood on their feet, and great fear fell upon those who watched.

11:12Then they heard a loud voice from the sky say to the two, “Come up here!” and they ascended into the sky in a cloud while their enemies watched.11:13In that very hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city collapsed. Seven thousand individuals were killed, and the survivors were gripped with fear and gave honor to the God of heaven.

11:14The second “woe” has passed, but look! The third “woe” is coming rapidly.

11:15Then the seventh trumpet sounded, and there were loud voices in the sky saying, “The kingdom of the world now belongs to our Master and his Anointed, who will reign forever!”11:16Then the twenty-four elders sitting on thrones before God fell down on their faces and worshiped God:11:17“We thank you, oh Master God Almighty, who is and who was, because you have taken your great power and assumed your reign!11:18The nations were angry and your rage came, and now is the time for the dead to be judged— to repay your slaves the prophets and the small and great who fear your name, and to ruin those who ruin the earth.”

11:19Then the temple of God in heaven was opened so that the Ark of the Covenant could be seen inside, and there came lightning, rumblings, thunder, an earthquake, and large hail.

12:1Then a great sign was seen in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, the moon beneath her feet, and a victor’s crown of twelve stars on her head.12:2She is pregnant and crying out because of the torture of labor pains as she is giving birth.

12:3Another sign was also seen in heaven, and look! A huge, fiery dragon with seven heads and ten horns, with each head wearing a royal crown.12:4Its tail dragged a third of the stars of the sky and threw them onto the earth. It stood before the woman with the intention of consuming the child as soon as it was born.12:5She gave birth to a male child who is to shepherd all the nations with a rod of iron. But her child was snatched up to God and his throne,12:6and the woman fled into the desert where there is a place prepared by God. There they will nourish her for one thousand, two hundred and sixty days.

12:7Then there was war in heaven: Michael and his Messengers fought against the dragon, and the dragon and its Messengers fought back.12:8But they were not strong enough and there was no more place for them in heaven.12:9So the great dragon, the ancient serpent called the False Accuser and the Adversary who misleads the whole inhabited world, was thrown along with his Messengers to the earth.

12:10And I heard a loud voice in heaven saying, “Now salvation, power, and the kingdom of our God has arrived, as well as the jurisdiction of his Anointed, because the accuser of our sisters and brothers, the one who accused them before God day and night, has been thrown out!12:11They conquered him by means of the blood of the Lamb and the word of their testimony, even to the point of giving up their lives.12:12On account of this, be happy all you who live in heaven! But woe to the earth and the sea, because the False Accuser has come down to you and is filled with great rage, seeing that his time is short.”

12:13Now when the dragon saw that it had been thrown to the earth, it pursued the woman that had given birth to the male child.12:14But the woman was given two wings of a great eagle so that she could fly from the presence of the serpent into the desert to her place to be nourished, for a time, times, and half a time.

12:15So the serpent shot out from its mouth water like a river so it would carry her off.12:16But the earth helped the woman and opened up its mouth to swallow the river that the dragon had shot out of its mouth.12:17The dragon then went off in a rage and prepared to do battle with the rest of her offspring who guard the injunctions of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus. And it stood on the seashore.

13:1Then I saw a wild animal rise out of the sea, and it had ten horns and seven heads. On each horn was a royal crown, and on each head was a slanderous name.13:2This wild animal was like a leopard with a bear’s paws and a lion’s mouth. The dragon gave this wild animal his power, his throne, and wide-ranging jurisdiction.13:3One of the wild animal’s heads appeared to have sustained a mortal wound but was healed. The whole earth was astounded at the wild animal,13:4and they worshiped the dragon for giving jurisdiction to it. They said, “Who is like the wild animal, and who can fight it?”

13:5The wild animal was given a mouth with which to speak great and slanderous things, and its jurisdiction would be for forty-two months.13:6It opened up its mouth to slander God and his name, and his sanctuary and all who live in heaven.13:7And it was allowed to do battle with the holy people and conquer them, as well as to have jurisdiction over all tribes, people groups, languages, and non-Judeans.13:8All the earth dwellers will worship it, whose names have not been written in the scroll of life of the Lamb who had been slaughtered from the establishment of the world.

13:9Whoever has an ear had better listen!13:10If anyone is to go into captivity, they will be taken; if anyone is to be killed with the sword, they will be killed. Such is the endurance and faith of the holy people.

13:11Then I saw another wild animal ascending out of the earth, and it had two horns like a lamb but spoke like a dragon.13:12It wields all the jurisdiction of the first wild animal and makes all the earth dwellers worship it (the one that was healed of the fatal wound).13:13It does great miraculous signs, such as making fire fall from the sky to the earth in front of everyone.13:14And it misleads the earth dwellers through the signs it was given to do in the presence of the first wild animal.

It told them to make an image of the wild animal that had the fatal wound but lived.13:15It was allowed to give spirit to the image of the wild animal so that it could talk, and to put to death anyone who would refuse to worship the image.13:16It also makes everyone— small or great, rich or poor, free or slave— accept an inscription on their right hand or forehead.13:17No one will be able to buy or sell without having the inscription of either the name or the number of the wild animal.

13:18This takes wisdom: let the one with insight compute the number of the wild animal, because it is the number of a person; the number is six-hundred sixty-six.

14:1Then suddenly I saw the Lamb on Mount Zion, and with him were one hundred forty-four thousand people with his name and his Father’s name written on their foreheads.14:2And I heard a sound coming from the sky; it was like the noise of a lot of rushing water or loud thunder. It seemed to be harpists playing their harps,14:3and they are singing a new song before the throne, the four animals, and the elders. No one could learn the song except the one hundred forty-four thousand who were bought from the earth.

14:4These are the ones who were not polluted with women, for they are unmarried.16 They follow the Lamb wherever he goes, having been bought from mankind as a first harvest to God and to the Lamb.14:5No deceit was found in them, because they are flawless.

14:6Then I saw another Messenger flying in midair, having the ageless Gospel to bring to those on the earth— the non-Judeans of every tribe and language and people group.14:7The Messenger announced loudly, “Fear God and give him honor, because the hour of his judgment has come! Worship the one who made the sky and the earth and the sea and the springs of water!”

14:8A second Messenger followed: “Fallen, fallen, is Babylon the Great, that made all the nations drink the wine of the fury of its promiscuity!”

14:9A third Messenger followed: “If anyone worships the wild animal and its image, and takes its inscription on their forehead or right hand,14:10they will drink the wine of the fury of God, mixed full-strength with his rage, and will be tortured in fire and sulphur before the Messengers of the holy people and the Lamb.14:11The smoke of their torture rises forever; there is no relief day or night for those who worship the wild animal and its image, and who take the inscription of its name.”

14:12Such is the endurance and faith of the holy people, who guard the injunctions of God and the faith of Jesus.17

14:13Then I heard a voice from the sky say, “Write this: Happy are those who die belonging to the Master from now on!

“Yes,” says the Spirit, “They will rest from their labors because their actions follow them.”

14:14Then suddenly there was a white cloud, and on the cloud sat someone human-like. On his head was a golden victor’s crown, and in his hand was a sharp sickle.14:15Another Messenger came out of the temple shouting loudly to the one sitting on the cloud, “Send out your sickle and reap, for the time has come to reap the shriveled harvest of the earth.”14:16So the one sitting on the cloud threw his sickle on the earth and reaped it.

14:17Another Messenger with a sharp sickle came out of the temple in heaven.14:18Then another Messenger, who had jurisdiction over the fire, came from the altar and called out in a loud voice to the one with the sharp sickle, “Send out your sickle and pick the clusters from the vine of the earth, because the grapes are ripe!”14:19And the Messenger threw his sickle to the earth and picked the grapes, then threw them into the winepress of God’s great rage.14:20The winepress was used outside the city, and blood came out of it to the point where it rose to the height of a horse’s bridle for a distance of 184 miles.18

15:1Then I saw another sign in heaven, huge and perplexing: seven Messengers with the seven last disasters, since with them the fury of God is fully spent.15:2And I saw a glassy sea mixed with fire. Standing next to it were those who had conquered the wild animal, its image, and the number of its name, and they held glassy harps from God.

15:3They sing the song of Moses, the slave of God, and the song of the Lamb: “Great and awesome are your actions, oh Master God Almighty! Just and true are your ways, King of the Non-Judeans!15:4Who will not fear you, Master, and honor your name? For you alone are clean; all the nations will come and worship before you because your equitable decrees were revealed.”

15:5After these things I saw that the Temple of the Sanctuary of the Testimony in heaven was opened.15:6Out of it came seven Messengers with the seven disasters, clothed in clean, shining linen with golden sashes around their chests.15:7And one of the four animals gave them seven golden bowls filled with the fury of God, who lives forever.

15:8The temple was completely filled with the smoke of the majesty and power of God, and no one was able to enter into the temple until the seven disasters of the seven Messengers were fully discharged.16:1Then I heard a loud voice coming out of the temple telling the seven Messengers, “Go and pour out the seven bowls of the fury of God onto the earth.”

16:2The first went out and poured his bowl onto the earth, and awful, terrible ulcers broke out on the people who had the inscription of the wild animal and were worshiping its image.

16:3The second poured out his bowl into the sea, and it became blood like that of a dead person, and every living thing in the sea died.

16:4The third poured out his bowl into the rivers and springs of water, which all became blood.16:5And I heard the Messenger of the waters say, “You who were and are, the one who is clean, have judged these things as they deserve,16:6because it is the blood of the holy people and prophets that they spilled, so you are right to give them blood to drink.”16:7And I heard the altar say, “Yes, Master God the Almighty, your judgments are true and right!”

16:8The fourth poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was given permission to scorch people with fire.16:9They were scorched so badly that they cursed the name of the God who had control over these disasters, and they would not change their minds to give him honor.

16:10The fifth poured out his bowl on the throne of the wild animal, and his kingdom became dark. People gnawed their tongues in agony16:11and cursed the God of heaven due to their miseries and ulcers, and they still would not change their ways.

16:12The sixth poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and it dried up to prepare passage for the kings from the rising of the sun.16:13Then I saw three unclean spirits resembling frogs come out of the mouths of the dragon, the wild animal, and the false prophet.16:14They are the spirits of demons that perform signs, and they go out to the kings of the whole inhabited world to gather them for battle in the days of the great God Almighty.

16:15“Look, I am coming like a thief! Blessed are those who stay alert and keep their clothes on, so that they don’t walk around naked and people see their indecency.”

16:16When they all had assembled at the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon,16:17the seventh poured out his bowl on the air. And a loud voice came out of the temple saying, “It has come to pass!”16:18Then there was lightning, rumbling, thunder, and a huge earthquake. There had never been an earthquake of this magnitude in all of human history, the quake was so big.

16:19Then the city split into three parts, and the cities of the non-Judeans fell. And God remembered Babylon the Great, to give her the cup with the wine of his fury and anger.16:20Every island fled and the mountains were found no more.16:21Then hail weighing a hundred pounds19 starts falling from the sky onto people and they cursed God on account of it, because it was such an extreme disaster.

17:1Then one of the seven Messengers with the bowls came and talked with me. He said, “Here, I will show you the judgment of the great harlot sitting on many waters.17:2The kings of the earth have been promiscuous with her, and the earth dwellers have been made drunk with the wine of her promiscuity.”

17:3He carried me away in spirit to the desert, and there I saw a woman riding a red wild animal covered with slanderous names and having seven heads and ten horns.17:4She was clothed in purple and red, and adorned with gold, precious stones, and pearls. She had in her hand a golden chalice filled with the disgusting filth of her promiscuity.17:5On her forehead was written a secret name: “Babylon the Great, mother of harlots and the disgusting things of earth.”

17:6I saw that she was drunk with the blood of the holy people and those who testify of Jesus, and I was aghast at the sight of her.17:7Then the Messenger said to me, “Why are you shocked? I will explain to you the secret of the woman and the seven-headed/ten horned wild animal that carries her.

17:8“The wild animal you saw was, and is not now, and is about to ascend from the Abyss and then be taken into oblivion. The earth dwellers whose names have not been written on the Scroll of Life from the establishment of the world will be in awe of the wild animal that was, is not now, and will be.

17:9“This takes wisdom: the seven heads are seven mountains the woman sits upon.17:10These are seven kings: five have fallen, one is now, and the other has not yet come. But when he does, he will only remain for a short time.17:11The wild animal that was and is not now, is an eighth that comes from the seven but is proceeding to oblivion.

17:12“The ten horns you saw are ten kings who have not yet acquired a kingdom, but they will share royal jurisdiction with the wild animal for one hour.17:13They will all be in agreement and give their power and jurisdiction to the wild animal.17:14They will battle the Lamb, but the Lamb will conquer them, since he is the Master of Masters and King of Kings, and those with him are appointed and chosen and trustworthy.”

17:15Then he says to me, “The waters you saw which the harlot is sitting upon are peoples, multitudes, nations, and languages.17:16The ten horns you saw, and the wild animal, will despise the harlot; they will obliterate her, strip her naked, consume her flesh, and set her on fire.17:17This is because God put it in their hearts to do his bidding, and to unite in giving their kingdom to the wild animal until the words of God are fulfilled.17:18And the woman you saw is the great city that has sovereignty over the kings of the earth.”20

18:1After these things I saw another Messenger descending from heaven with great authority. The earth was illuminated with his majesty,18:2and he called out in a mighty voice, “Fallen, fallen, is Babylon the Great! It has become the haunt of demons and a prison for every unclean spirit, unclean bird, unclean wild animal, and all that is despised.18:3For all the nations and kings of the earth have drunk the wine of the fury of her promiscuity, and the merchants of the earth became rich from the power of her indulgence.”

18:4And I heard another voice from heaven saying, “Come out of her, my people, so you don’t share in her failures or take her punishment!18:5For her failures have piled up to heaven and God has not forgotten her crimes.18:6Repay her as she has paid you and do twice as much to her as she’s done to you. Mix her a double helping from the cup she served to you.18:7Hand her as much torture and mourning as the honor and indulgence she demanded for herself, because in her heart she says, ‘I sit as queen; I am not a widow and will never mourn.’

18:8“So in one day all these disasters will come: death, mourning, and starvation. She will be burned down because the Master God Almighty is judging her.18:9The kings of the earth who indulged in promiscuity with her will sob and grieve when they see the smoke from her burning.18:10They will stand far away out of the fear of her torture and say, ‘Woe, woe to the great city, strong Babylon, because your judgment came in just one hour!’

18:11“And the merchants of the earth sob and mourn over her, because no one buys their cargo anymore:18:12gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, fine linen of purple and silk and crimson, all kinds of citrus wood, all kinds of things made of ivory or expensive wood, copper, iron, marble,18:13cinnamon, ginger, incense, perfumed oil, frankincense, wine, olive oil, fine wheat flour, grain, livestock, sheep, horses, carriages— and the bodies and souls of people.

18:14“ ‘[Babylon], the payoff that your soul craved has deserted you; all your delicacies and fancy things are gone from you and cannot be found.’18:15The merchants who became rich from her will stand far away out of the fear of her torture, sobbing and mourning18:16and saying, ‘Woe, woe to the great city that was clothed in fine purple and crimson linen, and was decorated with gold, precious stones, and pearls!18:17For in only one hour all her immense wealth was desolated.’ ”

Every sea captain, every sailor and mariner, and all who make their living from the sea stood far away.18:18When they came out and saw the smoke of her burning they said, “Who is like that great city?”18:19And they threw dust on their heads and went out sobbing and mourning: “Woe, woe to that great city, by whose wealth all who have ships on the sea made themselves rich, for she was desolated in just one hour!18:20But celebrate her demise, heaven and holy people and Ambassadors and prophets, for God has passed your sentence upon her instead.”

18:21And a strong Messenger lifted up a huge stone the size of a millstone, then threw it into the sea and said, “This is how the great city Babylon will be thrown down and never found again!18:22No longer will the sounds of harpists and musicians and floutists and trumpeters be heard in you, [Babylon]; no more will designers of every kind of art be found in you; never again will anyone hear the sound of industry in you.18:23Not the tiniest light will shine in you again; the voices of bridegrooms and brides will never be heard in you again. For your merchants were the world’s magnates and by your sorcery they mislead all the nations.”18:24And in her was discovered the blood of all the prophets and holy people who had been slaughtered on the earth.

19:1After these things I heard the sound of a huge crowd in heaven saying, “Hallelujah! Salvation, honor, and power to our God,19:2because his judgments are true and right. For he judged the great harlot who destroyed the earth with her promiscuity, and avenged the blood of his slaves shed by her hand.”19:3A second time they shouted, “Hallelujah! The smoke from her burning rises forever!”

19:4Then the twenty-four elders and the four animals fell down and worshiped God sitting on his throne: “Hallelujah, absolutely!”19:5And a voice came out of the throne saying, “Praise our God, all his slaves, and let the small and the great fear him!”

19:6Then I heard a sound like a huge crowd or the rushing of many waters or strong thunder saying, “Hallelujah, for Master God Almighty has established his reign!19:7Let us be happy and rejoice and give him honor, because the wedding of the Lamb has come and his bride has made herself ready.”19:8And she was given shining, clean linen to wear, because the fine linen represents the just reward of the holy people.

19:9Then the Messenger says to me, “Write this: Happy is the one who has been invited to the wedding dinner of the Lamb!” And he adds, “These are the genuine words of God.”19:10I fell at his feet to worship him, but he said to me, “No! I am a co-slave with you and your sisters and brothers who hold to the testimony of Jesus. Worship God, for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.”

19:11Then I saw the sky open up, and suddenly there was a white horse, whose rider is called Trustworthy and True, who judges and battles righteously.19:12His eyes are like blazing fire, and on his head are many royal crowns, as well as a name written that only he knows.19:13He is clothed in a garment that had been immersed in blood, and his name is called The Word of God.

19:14The armies of heaven followed him on white horses, clothed in clean, fine, white linen.19:15And out of his mouth goes a sharp broadsword with which to strike the nations. He will shepherd the nations with an iron rod, and he himself treads out the winepress of the fury and anger of God Almighty.19:16On his garment and thigh had been written his name: King of Kings and Master of Masters.

19:17Then I saw a Messenger standing in the sun, who called out in a loud voice to all the birds and other things that fly in midair, “Come here and gather for the great feast of God,19:18that you may eat the flesh of kings, rulers over thousands, the strong, horses and riders, free and slave, small and great!”

19:19And I saw the wild animal and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered to do battle with the one riding the horse and his army.19:20But the wild animal was captured, along with the false prophet who had performed signs on its behalf and mislead people into taking its inscription and worshiping it. They were thrown alive into the fiery lake of burning sulfur.19:21The rest were killed by the broadsword coming out of the mouth of the rider on the horse, and all the birds gorged themselves on their flesh.

20:1Then I saw a Messenger descending from heaven with the key to the Abyss and a large chain in his hand.20:2He seized the dragon— the ancient serpent, the False Accuser, the Adversary— and confined him for a thousand years.20:3He threw him into the Abyss and then locked and sealed it over him, so that he could not mislead the nations until the thousand years were finished. After that, he must be released for a short time.

20:4Then I saw thrones, and sitting on them were judges. The souls of those who had been beheaded on account of the testimony of Jesus and the Word of God, who had not worshiped the wild animal or its image or accepted its inscription on their forehead or hand, lived and reigned with the Anointed for a thousand years.20:5The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were over.

This is the first resurrection.20:6Blessed and holy are those who have a part in the first resurrection! The second death has no jurisdiction over them, but they will be priests of God and of the Anointed, and they will reign with him during the thousand years.

20:7When the thousand years are completed, the Adversary will be released from his prison.20:8And he will go out to mislead the nations in the four corners of the earth— Gog and Magog— to gather them for battle; the number of them is like the grains of sand on the seashore.

20:9They went up all across the earth and surrounded the encampment of the holy people and the beloved city, but fire came down from the sky and consumed them.20:10Then the False Accuser, the one misleading them, was thrown into the lake of fire and sulphur where the wild animal and the false prophet were. They will be tortured day and night forever.

20:11Then I saw a large white throne, and there was someone sitting on it. The earth and sky fled away from his presence but there was no place for them.20:12Then I saw the dead, the great and small, standing before the throne. Scrolls were opened, and then another scroll which is the Book of Life. The dead were judged according to their actions as recorded in the scrolls.20:13The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and everyone was judged according to their actions.

20:14Then Death and Hades were thrown into the Lake of Fire; this Lake of Fire is the second death.20:15Anyone whose name was not found written in the Book of Life was thrown into the Lake of Fire.

21:1Then I saw a new sky and a new earth, because the first sky and earth had gone away and the sea is no more.21:2And I saw the holy city, the New Jerusalem, descending from heaven and God, having been prepared as a bride dressed for her groom.

21:3Then I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Look! The sanctuary of God is with people. He will reside with them; they will be his people and he will be with them.21:4He will wipe every tear from their eyes, and there will be no more death, or mourning, or commotion, or misery, because the old ways are gone.”

21:5Then the one sitting on the throne said, “Look! I am making everything new.” And he added, “Write this down, because these words are trustworthy and true.”21:6He continued, “It has come to pass! I am the alpha and the omega, the start and the finish. I will give freely to the thirsty from the Well of the Water of Life.21:7Those who conquer will inherit all this; I will be their God and they will be my child.21:8But the cowardly, the untrustworthy, the disgusting, the murderers, the promiscuous, the sorcerers, the idolators, and all liars, will have their share of the lake burning with fire and sulphur, which is the second death.”

21:9Then one of the seven Messengers with the bowls of the final seven disasters came out and spoke to me: “Here, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb.”21:10And he carried me away in spirit to a huge, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem descending out of heaven from God.21:11It radiated the majesty of God the way a very precious stone such as crystalline jasper reflects light.

21:12It had a huge, high wall around it with twelve doorways, with a Messenger at each one, and over the doorways were written the names of the twelve tribes of Israel.21:13There were three doorways on each of the four sides: east, north, south, and west.21:14The wall also had twelve foundations, named for the twelve Ambassadors of the Lamb.

21:15Then the one speaking with me had a golden measuring stick with which to measure the city, its doorways, and its wall.21:16The city is laid out in a square; the length and width are equal. It measured 1,380 miles in length, width, and also height.21:17The wall itself measured 200 feet thick according to standard human measure, which the Messenger is using.21

21:18The wall is composed of jasper, and the city of pure gold, as clear as glass.21:19The wall’s foundations have been decorated with every kind of precious stone: the first with jasper, the second with sapphire, the third with chalcedony, the four with emerald,21:20the fifth with onyx, the sixth with ruby, the seventh with chrysolite, the eight with beryl, the ninth with topaz, the tenth with chrysoprase, the eleventh with hyacinth, and the twelfth with amethyst.21:21The twelve doorways were composed of twelve pearls— each one from a single pearl. And the city square was made of pure gold, as clear and transparent as glass.

21:22I saw no temple in the city, because the Master God Almighty and the Lamb are its temple.21:23The city has no need of the sun or moon to shine on it, because the majesty of God is its light and the Lamb is its lamp.21:24The nations will walk about in its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their majesty into it.21:25The city doors will never be locked on any day, because there will be no night,21:26and the majesty and honor of the non-Judeans will be brought to it.21:27But the vulgar, the disgusting, the false— whoever wasn’t written in the Lamb’s Book of Life— will absolutely not be granted entry.

22:1Then the Messenger showed me the River of the Water of Life, shining like a crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb.22:2In the middle of the city square and on either side of the river was the Tree of Life, which produces fruit in each of the twelve months of the year. Its leaves are for the healing of the non-Judeans.22:3The Curse will be no more!

The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in the city, and his slaves will offer him divine service.22:4They will gaze on his face and have his name on their foreheads.22:5There will be no more night, and thus no need for the light of a lamp or the sun, because the Master God will provide their light, and they will reign forever.

22:6Then the Messenger said to me, “These words are trustworthy and true.” And the Master, the God of the spirits of the prophets, commissioned his Messenger to show his slaves what must suddenly come to pass:22:7“Look! I am coming suddenly. Blessed are those who guard the words of the prophecy of this scroll.”

22:8I, John, am the one who heard and saw these things. And when I did, I fell down at the feet of the Messenger showing me these things.22:9But he says to me, “Look! No! I am just a co-slave with you and your brothers and sisters the prophets, and those who guard the words of this scroll. Worship God!”

22:10Then he said to me, “Do not seal the words of the prophecy of this scroll, because the time is near.22:11Let the unjust continue to harm; let the dirty remain dirty; let the just continue to be righteous; let the holy remain holy.”

22:12“Look! I am coming suddenly, bringing with me the wages everyone has earned.22:13I am the alpha and the omega, the first and the last, the start and the finish.22:14Happy are those who wash their robes; they are granted access to the Tree of Life and passage through the city doorways.22:15But outside are the loathsome, the sorcerers, the promiscuous, the murderers, the idolaters, and everyone who loves and practices falsehood.22:16I, Jesus, sent my Messenger to give you this testimony to the Congregations. I am the root and family of David, the shining morning star.”22:17The Spirit and the Bride say, “Come!” And let those who hear, say, “Come!” Let the thirsty come; let whoever chooses, drink freely of the Water of Life.

22:18“Indeed, I testify to all who hear the words of the prophecy of this scroll: whoever adds to those words, God will add to that person the disasters they describe.22:19And to whoever subtracts from those words, God will subtract their share from the Tree of Life and the holy city as those words describe.”

22:20The one testifying to these things says, “Yes! I am coming suddenly!”

Absolutely! Come, Master Jesus!

22:21May the favor of Master Jesus be with you all.

  1. 1Because of common illiteracy, it was necessary for the words to be read aloud by the few who could. So John is promising blessings to the reader who does not add or remove words, and the listener who takes them to heart.
  2. 2Some interpret “the devotion you had at first” as referring to fellowship meals, but the word here is singular; it would make little sense to criticise people for letting go of their first fellowship meal. It is typically rendered “love” rather than devotion, but devotion is equally possible and is just ambiguous enough to allow application to fellowship meals if one prefers that meaning.
  3. 3The white pebble symbolized a verdict of innocence.
  4. 4Jezebel is likely not her real name, but instead refers to her character as matching that of Queen Jezebel, wife of Ahab, who enticed the people of Israel to sacrifice to idols and commit sexual sin. The Bible never identifies Jezebel as a spiritual (non-human) entity, nor does it cite her for failing to obey her husband.
  5. 5Jasper and carnelian are varieties of chalcedony, which is a crystalline form of silica composed of the minerals quartz and moganite. Jasper is an opaque reddish-brown variety, while carnelian is an orange or orange-red variety. Emerald is a bright green precious stone consisting of a chromium-rich variety of beryl.
  6. 6According to, manuscript study strongly indicates that the elders include themselves in the company of the redeemed. But the four creatures are also singing this song, and it is likely they who refer to the redeemed as “them” in response to the song of the elders.
  7. 7Though the color white in Revelation typically represents purity, it can also symbolize indifference or peace. Perhaps the meaning here with the rider’s unarmed bow (no arrows) is that though the rider promises peace, the intent is clearly conquest.
  8. 8If the appearance of this horse is literal fire, it probably symbolizes that which consumes and destroys, whereas red symbolized death in ancient Greece. How this differs from the horses to come may be that it marks the beginning or act of slaughter, while the others mark the results of the slaughter.
  9. 9The black color could symbolize wealth and prosperity (or the lack of it) or mourning, though the meaning here is clearly linked with economic disaster.
  10. 10The color green symbolized fear in the ancient Greek culture, while in modern English culture fear is symbolized by being pale. The rendering preference here is for the actual color and not its figurative meaning, since that is not clear. And as with the fiery/red horse, we cannot know whether these were to be understood as natural horse colors such as chestnut or pale/mottled.
  11. 11Cardinal points are the four directions: north, south, east, west.
  12. 12The star is traditionally known as Wormwood, after a bitter herb.
  13. 13An abyss is a bottomless pit.
  14. 14Abaddon and Apollyon mean “Destroyer.”
  15. 15The word for sorcery could also mean drug use, but in that culture the drugs were used for sorcery.
  16. 16The word for “unmarried” is almost exclusively used for females. If part of the significance of the 12,000 from each tribe is a reference to a military force, it should be noted that one requirement for Jewish soldiers going into battle was sexual purity (Deut. 23:9-10, 1 Sam. 21:5, 2 Sam. 11:11). This is consistent with the overall purity theme in Revelation.
  17. 17With reference to 13:10, the call for endurance is made after a depiction of the price of faithfulness compared to the fate of those who fail.
  18. 18184 miles or 300km are the approximate equivalent of the literal value of 1600 stadia.
  19. 19A hundred pounds or 50 kilos are approximately equivalent to the literal “talent weight.”
  20. 20Note that the city has this sovereignty at the time the revelation was given; it is in the present tense. Thus the city had to exist in that day as well as the future time of the prophetic fulfillment.
  21. 211,380 miles or 2,400 km are approximately equivalent to the literal 1,200 stadia. Likewise, 200 feet or 65 meters relates to the literal 144 cubits.